William - how did your interest in music reproduction start?
Since I was young I’ve always been in the world of music. My uncles were jazz guitarist and bassist. For my part I’ve played Fender bass. I have no preferred style of music. I can listen from Mozart all the way to Deep Purple and this via Stanley Clarke
It has been suggested that a reasonable rule of thumb would be for the power supply to have a bandwidth an order of magnitude greater than that of the actual amplification circuitry. What is your view?
An ideal power supply has zero impedance and the same goes for the ground. In the real world, the power supply and ground always have a non-zero impedance. We try to get as close to zero as possible. The problem is also due to the generation of EMI. The problem is solved using by transformers with a shield that is grounded.
Now there are a lot of transformers R-CORE, TOROID and also traditional designs that have a reduced EMI Emission due to the fact that the materials used are of good quality. R-CORE transformer are good but their large size doesn’t allow an easy integration – at the same power – than lower priced models.
I use toroidal transformers made to a tight specification with high quality cores. This means that our transformers are substantially larger than traditional torroidal transformers
Do you have any particular priorities, other than the obvious one of sound quality, when you approach the design of an amplification concept?
I try to do the simplest circuits possible with carefully placed components where in so doing a better sound is produced. The result is that the sound is natural and rendered it as close as possible to reality.
I’m curious about the gestation process you go through designing a new amplifier. How do you normally operate from, say, a clean sheet of paper? Though this is probably never the case because you’re always building on your previous efforts
The creation of a new product that several steps:
- Consultation with distributors, resellers and customers to determine "good product" market-based
- Analyzing the information and then prioritizing it because it would be impossible to make a product with all the requested features
- According to my way of seeing things and synthesis I draw a diagram on paper and, after some calculations, a model is made and tested.
- We analyze the results to point out where and how we need to improv the model.To achieve this, I can rely on my many years of experience. Experience is a significant contributor to our success. We apply established engineering principles as opposed to hype.
- When I'm happy I put together the prototype and gather feedback from customers and dealers
- Some adaptations may be made at that point if necessary.
- When the test results are all good, a pre-production series is rolled out
What are your feelings about the whole digital/analog controversy?
I think for now these are two different perspectives. In both cases there is good and bad. For me (for now) an analog system works better than digital. Compare a CD with LP in very good condition and the result is still quite clear. However, the implementation to get a great digital sound is much harder and therefore more expensive than it is with an analog system.
Some digital systems work as well as some analogue systems but the cost to achieve this is significant. It is clear that in the near future, with lower costs, and the evolution of technology, digital will take the lead, still with a bit of analog integrated.
Thank you William